The National Board of Examinations was established in 1975 with the prime objective of improving the quality of the Medical Education by elevating the level and establishing standards of post graduate examinations in modern medicine on an all India basis. There are more than 149 recognized Medical Colleges in the country. In addition to Postgraduate teaching institutions under MCI, there are 450 accredited institutions imparting training in various Broad and Super specialities for the award of postgraduate qualification in Broad and super specialities. The Board at present conducts postgraduate and postdoctoral examinations in 54 disciplines approved by the Board for the award of Diplomate of National Board. The Medical Council of India has laid down standards for post graduate examinations conducted by various medical colleges and affiliated to concerned universities and other institutions, yet the levels of proficiency and standards of evaluation vary considerably in these institutions. The setting up of a National Body to conduct post graduate medical examination was intended to provide a common standard and mechanism of evaluation of minimum level of attainment of the objective for which post graduate courses were started in medical institutions. Moreover, intra country and international comparison is facilitated with the availability of commonly accepted evaluation mechanism.